On the father’s side, Henry’s claim to the throne was weak. [citation needed], As king, Henry was styled by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland. Based on the terms of the accord, Henry sent 6000 troops to fight (at the expense of Brittany) under the command of Lord Daubeney. [16] He amassed an army of about 5,000 soldiers. [29], In 1490, a young Fleming, Perkin Warbeck, appeared and claimed to be Richard, the younger of the "Princes in the Tower". [55][56] Of all British kings, Henry VII is one of only a handful that never had any known mistress, and for the times, it is very unusual that he did not remarry: his son, Henry, was the only heir left and the death of Arthur put the position of the House of Tudor in a more precarious political position. [63] He was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII (reigned 1509–47). Their first son, Arthur, was born on September 20following. https://www.natgeokids.com/za/discover/history/monarchy/wives-of-henry-viii During Henry's early years, his uncle Henry VI was fighting against Edward of York (later King Edward IV), a member of the Yorkist Plantagenet branch. Owen Tudor is said to have secretly married Henry V’s widow, Catherine of Valois. [citation needed], All Acts of Parliament were overseen by the Justices of the Peace. His second son Henry VIII succeeded him on the throne after his death in 1509. [citation needed], He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him. After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine. However, as France was becoming more concerned with the Italian Wars, the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples. By this marriage, Henry VII hoped to break the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France. But before Queen Elizabeth there were King Edward VI and Queen Mary I of England, her younger brother and older sister. 4. Richard III's death at Bosworth Field effectively ended the Wars of the Roses. His reign was initially plagued by rebellions and several presidents of the throne, which he successfully suppressed. A few months later, on January 18, 1486, he married Elizabeth of York. In 1407, Henry IV, Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings but also declaring them ineligible for the throne. After defeating his rival Richard III to win the throne, he established a dynasty that would rule for more than 100 years. [35] Royal government was also reformed with the introduction of the King's Council, which kept the nobility in check. He joined together the houses of York and Lancaster by marrying Elizabeth of York and ended the War of the Roses. Following the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, Edward prepared to order Henry's extraction and probable execution. Henry VIII is believed to have fathered several illegitimate children. These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats. The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke. Henry married Unknown Breton Woman VII on month day 1486, at age 28 at marriage place . He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. [citation needed], During his lifetime the nobility often jeered him for re-centralizing power in London, and later the 16th-century historian Francis Bacon was ruthlessly critical of the methods by which he enforced tax law, but it is equally true that Henry Tudor was hellbent on keeping detailed records of his personal finances, down to the last halfpenny;[57] these and one account book detailing the expenses of his queen survive in the British National Archives, as do accounts of courtiers and many of the king's own letters. Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of the Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Richard III, was made Countess of Salisbury. They include Catherine and Henry Carey, born to Mary Boleyn, who was Henry’s mistress before he switched his attentions to her sister, Anne. His mother was Elizabeth Blount, the lady-in-waiting of Catherine of Aragon. [54] The wedding never took place, and the physical description Henry sent with his ambassadors of what he desired in a new wife matched the description of Elizabeth. In 1483 he left Britain to join the rebellion of his cousin Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham against Richard III; however, the latter’s victory forced Henry to flee precipitously to Brittany, again seeking the Duke’s protection. The purpose of the agreement was to prevent France from annexing Brittany. Henry was successful in restoring power and stability to the English monarchy following the civil war. Henry's father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, a half-brother of Henry VI of England and descendant of the Welsh Tudors of Penmynydd, died three months before his son Henry was born. [citation needed], Henry had been under the financial and physical protection of the French throne or its vassals for most of his life, before he became king. But while she bore the king a daughter – the future Mary I – their relationship was plagued by multiple miscarriages and stillbirths. [11] When the Yorkist Edward IV regained the throne in 1471, Henry fled with other Lancastrians to Brittany. France, Burgundy, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the Hanseatic League all rejected the treaty, which was never in force. He attained the throne when his forces, supported by France, Scotland, and Wales, defeated Edward IV's brother Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. She was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (fourth son of Edward III), and his third wife Katherine Swynford. [40], Henry later concluded a treaty with France at Etaples that brought money into the coffers of England, and ensured the French would not support pretenders to the English throne, such as Perkin Warbeck. Husband: Sir Richard Pole (married 1491-1494, perhaps on September 22, 1494; supporter of Henry VII). His mother survived him but died two months later on 29 June 1509. Although he leaves the image of a thrifty king, Elisabeth’s funeral is lavish and she is buried in Westminster Abbey. To strengthen his position, however, he subsidised shipbuilding, so strengthening the navy (he commissioned Europe's first ever – and the world's oldest surviving – dry dock at Portsmouth in 1495) and improving trading opportunities. Henry’s claim was rather weak: maternally and of illegitimate descent. Henry VII was the first Tudor king of England . When The house of York Edward IV returned to the throne in 1471, Henry, who was part of the House of Lancaster, took refuge in Brittany where he spent the next 14 years, under the protection of Duke Francis II of Brittany. When he committed treason by participating in the Buckingham rebellion, and in 1485 committed another crime by gathering an army against the king, he knew that if he was discovered in England, without having deposed the king first, he would be killed. It has been speculated that Jane Pollard was mistress to Henry VIII and Thomas was Henry’s illegitimate son. The first of Henry VIII's six wives, Katherine of Aragon was married to the infamous Tudor monarch for almost 24 years. Donald Trump | Biography, Education, Business career & Presidency, Robert Johnson | Biography, Songs, Guitarist & Death, Catherine The Great | Biography, accomplishments & Death, Marcus Aurelius | Biography, Meditations, Facts & Death, Elizabeth I | Biography, Successor, Facts & Death, Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, (Born September 20, 1486; Died on April 2, 1502), Margaret Tudor (born November 28, 1489; Died on October 18, 1541), Elizabeth Tudor (Born July 2, 1492; Died on September 14, 1495), Mary Tudor (Born March 18, 1496; Died on June 25, 1533), Edmund Tudor, 1st Duke of Somerset (Born February 21, 1499; Died on June 19, 1500), Katherine Tudor (born February 2, 1503; Died on 1503). In 1494, Henry embargoed trade (mainly in wool) with the Netherlands in retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy's support for Perkin Warbeck. Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward IV, on January 18, 1486, thus unifying the houses of Lancaster and York and reinforcing the legitimacy of the Tudors. His mother, Margareta Beaufort, was the last of the Beaufort family. In Brittany, Henry grew up and was educated as one of the candidates of the House of Lancaster to the throne occupied at that time by the house of York. They had six children, but only four survived infancy: Arthur Tudor (September 1486- April 1502) Margaret Tudor (November 1489- October 1541) Henry VIII (June 1491- January 1547) Mary Tudor (March 1496- June 1533) Edmund Tudor (Died young) Catherine Tudor (Died young) Henry VII increased taxes so future kings would have enough money. You could be forgiven for thinking that Henry VIII had only one child: Queen Elizabeth I of England. Unable to produce a male heir, Katherine was eventually cast aside by Henry in favour of her lady-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn. Many of the entries show a man who loosened his purse strings generously for his wife and children, and not just on necessities: in spring 1491 he spent a great amount of gold on a lute for his daughter Mary; the following year he spent money on a lion for Elizabeth's menagerie. He led attempted invasions of Ireland in 1491 and England in 1495, and persuaded James IV of Scotland to invade England in 1496. Henry was born at Pembroke Castle in Wales in 1457, the only son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, and his wife, Lady Margaret Beaufort. He spent most of the next 14 years under the protection of Francis II, Duke of Brittany. He, therefore, arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow Catherine, a relationship that would have otherwise precluded marriage in the Roman Catholic Church. He spent much of his early life under protection or in exile. They had 7 children: Arthur Prince of Wales, Margaret Tudor and 5 other children. As king, Henry was styled by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland. Due to the persecution of the house of York, Henry’s family soon left Wales for Brittany, where they were taken in by the Duke of Brittany, Francis II of France. [citation needed], Henry also made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth. They played an important role in both British history and the history of the royal palaces. His paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, was part of the Penmynydd family originally from Wales, he was a page at the court of King Henry V of England. From his six marriages, Henry VIII only had three children who lived. Henry showed remarkable clemency to the surviving rebels: he pardoned Kildare and the other Irish nobles, and he made the boy, Simnel, a servant in the royal kitchen where he was in charge of roasting meats on a spit. He founded the Tudor dynasty by winning the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, eldest son, first husband of Catherine of Aragon; predeceased father without progeny. He was medium-sized, well-proportioned, and with a red hardness on his cheek. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry. He was a half-cousin of the first Tudor king, Henry VII; Richard Pole’s mother was a half-sister of Margaret Beaufort, Henry VII’s mother. Henry married his son Arthur to Catharine of Aragón, daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella of Castile, his daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland, and his youngest daughter Mary to Louis XII of France. Catherine Parr, sometimes alternatively spelled Katherine, Katheryn, Kateryn or Katharine (1512 – 5 September 1548), was queen consort of England and Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, and the final queen consort of the House of Tudor.She married him on 12 July 1543, and outlived him by a year and eight months. His younger brother, Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke, undertook to protect Edmund's widow Margaret, who was 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry. [23], Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes, and he was largely successful. Henry VIII, king of England, was famously married six times and played a critical role in the English Reformation, turning his country into a Protestant nation. But his wives weren’t just failing to have sons. After Arthur died in 1502, an agreement was reached by which Catharine married Arthur's brother Henry (later Henry VIII). [50] This made Henry, Duke of York, heir apparent to the throne. Henry’s mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the third son of King Edward III of England and his third wife, Katherine Swynford. [33] But during his reign he became a fiscally prudent monarch who restored the fortunes of an effectively bankrupt exchequer. Others suspected of being Henry VIII’s illegitimate children include: Thomas Stukley (Stukeley, Stuckley, Stucley) – Born 1520. Thus, a small band of scouts rescued Henry. [11] When Warwick restored Henry VI in 1470, Jasper Tudor returned from exile and brought Henry to court. [43] He also concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Scotland (the first treaty between England and Scotland for almost two centuries), which betrothed his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland. "Ill of the dead. His mother Margaret Beaufort follows him to the grave; she dies from June 29, 1509. 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